The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2000

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2000 was awarded jointly to Arvid Carlsson, Paul Greengard and Eric R. Kandel “for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system.”

Nobelist Born Died Affiliation at the time of the award
Arvid Carlsson 25 January 1923, Uppsala, Sweden 29 June 2018, Gothenburg, Sweden Göteborg University, Gothenburg, Sweden
Paul Greengard 11 December 1925, New York, NY, USA Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA
Eric R. Kandel 7 November 1929, Vienna, Austria Columbia University, New York, NY, USA


In the human brain there are more than hundred billion nerve cells. They are connected to each other through an infinitely complex network of nerve processes. The message from one nerve cell to another is transmitted through different chemical transmitters. The signal transduction takes place in special points of contact, called synapses. A nerve cell can have thousands of such contacts with other nerve cells.

The three Nobel Laureates in Physiology or Medicine have made pioneering discoveries concerning one type of signal transduction between nerve cells, referred to as slow synaptic transmission. These discoveries have been crucial for an understanding of the normal function of the brain and how disturbances in this signal transduction can give rise to neurological and psychiatric diseases. These findings have resulted in the development of new drugs.

More details, please click The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2000.


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