The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007 was awarded jointly to Mario R. Capecchi, Sir Martin J. Evans and Oliver Smithies “for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells.”
|Nobelist||Born||Affiliation at the time of the award|
|Mario R. Capecchi||6 October 1937, Verona, Italy||University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA|
|Sir Martin J. Evans||1 January 1941, Stroud, United Kingdom||Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom|
|Oliver Smithies||Born: 23 June 1925, Halifax, United Kingdom
Died: 10 January 2017, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
|University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA|
This year’s Nobel Laureates have made a series of ground-breaking discoveries concerning embryonic stem cells and DNA recombination in mammals. Their discoveries led to the creation of an immensely powerful technology referred to as gene targeting in mice. It is now being applied to virtually all areas of biomedicine – from basic research to the development of new therapies.
Gene targeting is often used to inactivate single genes. Such gene “knockout” experiments have elucidated the roles of numerous genes in embryonic development, adult physiology, aging and disease. To date, more than ten thousand mouse genes (approximately half of the genes in the mammalian genome) have been knocked out. Ongoing international efforts will make “knockout mice” for all genes available within the near future.
With gene targeting it is now possible to produce almost any type of DNA modification in the mouse genome, allowing scientists to establish the roles of individual genes in health and disease. Gene targeting has already produced more than five hundred different mouse models of human disorders, including cardiovascular and neuro-degenerative diseases, diabetes and cancer.
More details, please click The 2007 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.