Noninvasive optical imaging Paves the Way for Autophagy Research

1、Mitochondrial Transfer in the Leukemia Microenvironment.
The bone marrow microenvironment (BMME) is a complex ecosystem that instructs and protects hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and their malignant counterparts, the leukemia-initiating cells (LICs). Within the physical and functional crosstalk that takes place between HSCs, LICs, and the BMME, the transfer of organelles and of mitochondria in particular is an important new intercellular communication mode in addition to adhesion molecules, tunneling nanotubes (TNTs), and the paracrine secretion of cytokines, (onco)metabolites, and extracellular vesicles (EVs). In this review Emmanuel Griessinger at Côte d’Azur University in Nice CEDEX, France and his colleagues discuss the functional roles of mitochondrial transfer between BMME and leukemic cells, and give insights into this new mechanism of drug resistance whose understanding will open the way to innovative anticancer adjuvant treatments.

Read more, please click http://www.cell.com/trends/cancer/fulltext/S2405-8033(17)30197-8

2、Targeting Oncogenic Transcription Factors: Therapeutic Implications of Endogenous STAT Inhibitors.
Misregulation of transcription factors, including signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins, leads to inappropriate gene expression patterns that can promote tumor initiation and progression. Under physiologic conditions, STAT signaling is stimulus dependent and tightly regulated by endogenous inhibitors, namely, suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins, phosphatases, and protein inhibitor of activated STAT (PIAS) proteins. However, in tumorigenesis, STAT proteins become constitutively active and promote the expression of progrowth and prosurvival genes. Although STAT activation has been widely implicated in cancer, therapeutic STAT inhibitors are still largely absent from the clinic. In this review Lisa N. Heppler at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston, MA, USA and her colleagues dissect the mechanisms of action of two families of endogenous STAT inhibitors, the SOCS and PIAS families, to potentially inform the development of novel therapeutic inhibitors.

Read more, please click http://www.cell.com/trends/cancer/fulltext/S2405-8033(17)30198-X

3、Improving Biopharmaceutical Safety through Verification-Based Quality Control.
Biopharmaceuticals and small-molecule drugs have different approval pathways but the same quality control (QC) paradigm, where the quality of released but untested units is inferred from that of tested but destroyed units. This inference-based QC will likely miss rare prerelease defects, and defects emerging after product release. The likelihood for such defects is heightened for biopharmaceuticals due to their complexity, which makes manufacturing errors more likely, and fragility, which makes postrelease damage more likely. To improve biopharmaceutical safety, Yihua Bruce Yu at University of Maryland School of Pharmacy in Baltimore, MD, USA and his colleagues suggest transitioning their QC from inference- to verification-based practice by developing inspection technologies that can nondestructively verify the quality of every vial from the point of release to the point of care. One candidate, water proton NMR (wNMR), is briefly discussed.

Read more, please click http://www.cell.com/trends/biotechnology/fulltext/S0167-7799(17)30229-9

4、Structure and Computation in Immunoreagent Design: From Diagnostics to Vaccines.
Novel immunological tools for efficient diagnosis and treatment of emerging infections are urgently required. Advances in the diagnostic and vaccine development fields are continuously progressing, with reverse vaccinology and structural vaccinology (SV) methods for antigen identification and structure-based antigen (re)design playing increasingly relevant roles. SV, in particular, is predicted to be the front-runner in the future development of diagnostics and vaccines targeting challenging diseases such as AIDS and cancer. Louise Gourlay at Università di Milano in Milan, Italy and her colleagues review state-of-the-art methodologies for structure-based epitope identification and antigen design, with specific applicative examples. They highlight the implications of such methods for the engineering of biomolecules with improved immunological properties, potential diagnostic and/or therapeutic uses, and discuss the perspectives of structure-based rational design for the production of advanced immunoreagents.

Read more, please click http://www.cell.com/trends/biotechnology/fulltext/S0167-7799(17)30167-1

5、Optical Imaging Paves the Way for Autophagy Research.
Autophagy is a degradation process in eukaryotic cells that recycles cellular components for nutrition supply under environmental stress and plays a double-edged role in development of major human diseases. Noninvasive optical imaging enables us to clearly visualize various classes of structures involved in autophagy at macroscopic and microscopic dynamic levels. In this review, Yimin Wang at College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University in Chengdu, China and his colleagues discuss important trends of emerging optical imaging technologies used to explore autophagy and provide insights into the mechanistic investigation and structural study of autophagy in mammalian cells. Some exciting new prospects and future research directions regarding optical imaging techniques in this field are also highlighted.

Read more, please click http://www.cell.com/trends/biotechnology/fulltext/S0167-7799(17)30225-1

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