PTBP1-Mediated Alternative Splicing Regulates the Inflammatory Secretome and the Pro-tumorigenic Effects of Senescent Cells

Content introduction:

  • PTBP1-Mediated Alternative Splicing Regulates the Inflammatory Secretome and the Pro-tumorigenic Effects of Senescent Cells
  • The Tandem Duplicator Phenotype Is a Prevalent Genome-Wide Cancer Configuration Driven by Distinct Gene Mutations
  • EZH2-Mediated Primary Cilium Deconstruction Drives Metastatic Melanoma Formation
  • Apoptotic Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Promote Malignancy of Glioblastoma Via Intercellular Transfer of Splicing Factors
  • A Comprehensive Pan-Cancer Molecular Study of Gynecologic and Breast Cancers

1. PTBP1-Mediated Alternative Splicing Regulates the Inflammatory Secretome and the Pro-tumorigenic Effects of Senescent Cells
Oncogene-induced senescence is a potent tumor-suppressive response. Paradoxically, senescence also induces an inflammatory secretome that promotes carcinogenesis and age-related pathologies. Consequently, the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) is a potential therapeutic target. Here, Athena Georgilis at MRC London Institute of Medical Sciences (LMS) in London, UK and her colleagues describe an RNAi screen for SASP regulators. They identified 50 druggable targets whose knockdown suppresses the inflammatory secretome and differentially affects other SASP components. Among the screen candidates was PTBP1. PTBP1 regulates the alternative splicing of genes involved in intracellular trafficking, such as EXOC7, to control the SASP. Inhibition of PTBP1 prevents the pro-tumorigenic effects of the SASP and impairs immune surveillance without increasing the risk of tumorigenesis. In conclusion, their study identifies SASP inhibition as a powerful and safe therapy against inflammation-driven cancer.

Read more, please click https://www.cell.com/cancer-cell/fulltext/S1535-6108(18)30264-2

2. The Tandem Duplicator Phenotype Is a Prevalent Genome-Wide Cancer Configuration Driven by Distinct Gene Mutations
The tandem duplicator phenotype (TDP) is a genome-wide instability configuration primarily observed in breast, ovarian, and endometrial carcinomas. Here, Francesca Menghi at The Jackson Laboratory for Genomic Medicine in Farmington, USA and his colleagues stratify TDP tumors by classifying their tandem duplications (TDs) into three span intervals, with modal values of 11 kb, 231 kb, and 1.7 Mb, respectively. TDPs with ∼11 kb TDs feature loss of TP53 and BRCA1. TDPs with ∼231 kb and ∼1.7 Mb TDs associate with CCNE1 pathway activation and CDK12 disruptions, respectively. They demonstrate that p53 and BRCA1 conjoint abrogation drives TDP induction by generating short-span TDP mammary tumors in genetically modified mice lacking them. Lastly, they show how TDs in TDP tumors disrupt heterogeneous combinations of tumor suppressors and chromatin topologically associating domains while duplicating oncogenes and super-enhancers.

Read more, please click https://www.cell.com/cancer-cell/fulltext/S1535-6108(18)30265-4

3. EZH2-Mediated Primary Cilium Deconstruction Drives Metastatic Melanoma Formation
Human melanomas frequently harbor amplifications of EZH2. However, the contribution of EZH2 to melanoma formation has remained elusive. Taking advantage of murine melanoma models, Daniel Zingg at The Netherlands Cancer Institute in Amsterdam, the Netherlands and his colleagues show that EZH2 drives tumorigenesis from benign Braf V600E- or Nras Q61K-expressing melanocytes by silencing of genes relevant for the integrity of the primary cilium, a signaling organelle projecting from the surface of vertebrate cells. Consequently, gain of EZH2 promotes loss of primary cilia in benign melanocytic lesions. In contrast, blockade of EZH2 activity evokes ciliogenesis and cilia-dependent growth inhibition in malignant melanoma. Finally, they demonstrate that loss of cilia enhances pro-tumorigenic WNT/β-catenin signaling, and is itself sufficient to drive metastatic melanoma in benign cells. Thus, primary cilia deconstruction is a key process in EZH2-driven melanomagenesis.

Read more, please click https://www.cell.com/cancer-cell/fulltext/S1535-6108(18)30229-0

4. Apoptotic Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Promote Malignancy of Glioblastoma Via Intercellular Transfer of Splicing Factors
Aggressive cancers such as glioblastoma (GBM) contain intermingled apoptotic cells adjacent to proliferating tumor cells. Nonetheless, intercellular signaling between apoptotic and surviving cancer cells remain elusive. In this study, Marat S. Pavlyukov at University of Alabama at Birmingham in Birmingham, USA and his colleagues demonstrate that apoptotic GBM cells paradoxically promote proliferation and therapy resistance of surviving tumor cells by secreting apoptotic extracellular vesicles (apoEVs) enriched with various components of spliceosomes. apoEVs alter RNA splicing in recipient cells, thereby promoting their therapy resistance and aggressive migratory phenotype. Mechanistically, they identified RBM11 as a representative splicing factor that is upregulated in tumors after therapy and shed in extracellular vesicles upon induction of apoptosis. Once internalized in recipient cells, exogenous RBM11 switches splicing of MDM4 and Cyclin D1 toward the expression of more oncogenic isoforms.

Read more, please click https://www.cell.com/cancer-cell/fulltext/S1535-6108(18)30226-5

5. A Comprehensive Pan-Cancer Molecular Study of Gynecologic and Breast Cancers
Ashton C. Berger at The Eli and Edythe L. Broad Institute of Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University in Cambridge, USA and his colleagues analyzed molecular data on 2,579 tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) of four gynecological types plus breast. Their aims were to identify shared and unique molecular features, clinically significant subtypes, and potential therapeutic targets. They found 61 somatic copy-number alterations (SCNAs) and 46 significantly mutated genes (SMGs). Eleven SCNAs and 11 SMGs had not been identified in previous TCGA studies of the individual tumor types. They found functionally significant estrogen receptor-regulated long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and gene/lncRNA interaction networks. Pathway analysis identified subtypes with high leukocyte infiltration, raising potential implications for immunotherapy. Using 16 key molecular features, they identified five prognostic subtypes and developed a decision tree that classified patients into the subtypes based on just six features that are assessable in clinical laboratories.

Read more, please click https://www.cell.com/cancer-cell/fulltext/S1535-6108(18)30119-3

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