Left: Conventional light microscopy is an useful tool in visualising biological structures and processes. However, its resolution is not sufficient to study events occurring at molecular scale. The image on the left shows the nuclei of brain tumour cells (yellow: nuclei containing DNA) with Toll-like receptors 4 localised at the cell surface (cyan spots). Although many TLR4 can be clearly seen, the spatial resolution does not allow determination of single receptor units. Middle: Super-resolution microscopy greatly improves the spatial resolution and allows detection of single TLR4 clusters (cyan) at the surface of the cells. However, even at this superior resolution, it is not possible to distinguish between monomers and dimers of the receptor. Right: Crystal structure of a TLR4 dimer. The novel analysis method developed by the consortium is able to provide information allowing differentiating between receptor monomers and dimers.
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