The Tandem Duplicator Phenotype Is a Prevalent Genome-Wide Cancer Configuration Driven by Distinct Gene Mutations

Content introduction:

  • The Tandem Duplicator Phenotype Is a Prevalent Genome-Wide Cancer Configuration Driven by Distinct Gene Mutations
  • Comprehensive Analysis of Alternative Splicing Across Tumors from 8,705 Patients
  • Synthetic Lethal and Convergent Biological Effects of Cancer-Associated Spliceosomal Gene Mutations
  • Apoptotic Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Promote Malignancy of Glioblastoma Via Intercellular Transfer of Splicing Factors
  • Autocrine Mfge8 Signaling Prevents Developmental Exhaustion of the Adult Neural Stem Cell Pool

1. The Tandem Duplicator Phenotype Is a Prevalent Genome-Wide Cancer Configuration Driven by Distinct Gene Mutations
The tandem duplicator phenotype (TDP) is a genome-wide instability configuration primarily observed in breast, ovarian, and endometrial carcinomas. Here, Francesca Menghi at The Jackson Laboratory for Genomic Medicine in Farmington, USA and his colleagues stratify TDP tumors by classifying their tandem duplications (TDs) into three span intervals, with modal values of 11 kb, 231 kb, and 1.7 Mb, respectively. TDPs with ∼11 kb TDs feature loss of TP53 and BRCA1. TDPs with ∼231 kb and ∼1.7 Mb TDs associate with CCNE1 pathway activation and CDK12 disruptions, respectively. They demonstrate that p53 and BRCA1 conjoint abrogation drives TDP induction by generating short-span TDP mammary tumors in genetically modified mice lacking them. Lastly, they show how TDs in TDP tumors disrupt heterogeneous combinations of tumor suppressors and chromatin topologically associating domains while duplicating oncogenes and super-enhancers.

Read more, please click https://www.cell.com/cancer-cell/fulltext/S1535-6108(18)30265-4

2. Comprehensive Analysis of Alternative Splicing Across Tumors from 8,705 Patients
Comprehensive analysis of alternative splicing across 32 The Cancer Genome Atlas cancer types from 8,705 patients detects alternative splicing events and tumor variants by reanalyzing RNA and whole-exome sequencing data. Tumors have up to 30% more alternative splicing events than normal samples. Association analysis of somatic variants with alternative splicing events confirmed known trans associations with variants in SF3B1 and U2AF1 and identified additional trans-acting variants (e.g., TADA1, PPP2R1A). Many tumors have thousands of alternative splicing events not detectable in normal samples; on average, André Kahles at ETH Zurich in Zurich, Switzerland and his colleagues identified ≈930 exon-exon junctions (“neojunctions”) in tumors not typically found in GTEx normals. From Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium data available for breast and ovarian tumor samples, they confirmed ≈1.7 neojunction- and ≈0.6 single nucleotide variant-derived peptides per tumor sample that are also predicted major histocompatibility complex-I binders (“putative neoantigens”).

Read more, please click https://www.cell.com/cancer-cell/fulltext/S1535-6108(18)30306-4

3. Synthetic Lethal and Convergent Biological Effects of Cancer-Associated Spliceosomal Gene Mutations
Mutations affecting RNA splicing factors are the most common genetic alterations in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients and occur in a mutually exclusive manner. The basis for the mutual exclusivity of these mutations and how they contribute to MDS is not well understood. Here Stanley Chun-Wei Lee at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York, USA and his colleagues report that although different spliceosome gene mutations impart distinct effects on splicing, they are negatively selected for when co-expressed due to aberrant splicing and downregulation of regulators of hematopoietic stem cell survival and quiescence. In addition to this synthetic lethal interaction, mutations in the splicing factors SF3B1 and SRSF2 share convergent effects on aberrant splicing of mRNAs that promote nuclear factor κB signaling. These data identify shared consequences of splicing-factor mutations and the basis for their mutual exclusivity.

Read more, please click https://www.cell.com/cancer-cell/fulltext/S1535-6108(18)30308-8

4. Apoptotic Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Promote Malignancy of Glioblastoma Via Intercellular Transfer of Splicing Factors
Aggressive cancers such as glioblastoma (GBM) contain intermingled apoptotic cells adjacent to proliferating tumor cells. Nonetheless, intercellular signaling between apoptotic and surviving cancer cells remain elusive. In this study, Marat S. Pavlyukov at University of Alabama at Birmingham, Wallace Tumor Institute in Birmingham, USA and his colleagues demonstrate that apoptotic GBM cells paradoxically promote proliferation and therapy resistance of surviving tumor cells by secreting apoptotic extracellular vesicles (apoEVs) enriched with various components of spliceosomes. apoEVs alter RNA splicing in recipient cells, thereby promoting their therapy resistance and aggressive migratory phenotype. Mechanistically, they identified RBM11 as a representative splicing factor that is upregulated in tumors after therapy and shed in extracellular vesicles upon induction of apoptosis. Once internalized in recipient cells, exogenous RBM11 switches splicing of MDM4 and Cyclin D1 toward the expression of more oncogenic isoforms.

Read more, please click https://www.cell.com/cancer-cell/fulltext/S1535-6108(18)30226-5

5. Autocrine Mfge8 Signaling Prevents Developmental Exhaustion of the Adult Neural Stem Cell Pool
Adult neurogenesis, arising from quiescent radial-glia-like neural stem cells (RGLs), occurs throughout life in the dentate gyrus. How neural stem cells are maintained throughout development to sustain adult mammalian neurogenesis is not well understood. Here, Yi Zhou at Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, USA and his colleagues show that milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor (EGF) 8 (Mfge8), a known phagocytosis factor, is highly enriched in quiescent RGLs in the dentate gyrus. Mfge8-null mice exhibit decreased adult dentate neurogenesis, and furthermore, adult RGL-specific deletion of Mfge8 leads to RGL overactivation and depletion. Similarly, loss of Mfge8 promotes RGL activation in the early postnatal dentate gyrus, resulting in a decreased number of label-retaining RGLs in adulthood. Mechanistically, loss of Mfge8 elevates mTOR1 signaling in RGLs, inhibition of which by rapamycin returns RGLs to quiescence. Together, their study identifies a neural-stem-cell-enriched niche factor that maintains quiescence and prevents developmental exhaustion of neural stem cells to sustain continuous neurogenesis in the adult mammalian brain.

Read more, please click https://www.cell.com/cell-stem-cell/fulltext/S1934-5909(18)30390-4

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